Blockchain can be used for IoT devices where peer to a peer communication network is established. Network bandwidth is needed so you can see messages about transactions and synchronization. Peers can help one another when there are limited resources. You can visit IT Support Services company for your IT issues assistance.
The number of processing blocks to be stored is also not so large. As IoT devices have a rarer capacity of storage and have minimum computing power, it is difficult to implement the peer-to-peer network. So, to overcome this, blockchain can be utilized in network elements.
While in blockchain, the sensing or actuating devices can’t be considered to validate the integrity of the data. People need to sign blocks with their digital signature. But before they can, there are some requirements for the miners.
- The first block is created by the miner, which is the source, and this block has data. So, similarly, the rest of the network elements will add the blocks in the blockchain up to the destination. So end-to-end block chaining is required, and integration of storage devices is protected by blockchain.
- Blockchain is also required at an analytical level as data analytics transactions are required for an analytical engine.
- The integrity of data is not protected when data is created by the devices (sensor, actuators) initially. In this network, you need to make sure that you can find a way to create a hash value for large blocks of data.
Progression of Blockchain technology:
IoT can utilize blockchain capabilities to resolve its security and privacy issues. Authors suggest that blockchain could be a good way to make sure your IoT devices are safe. In an untrusted environment, it is decentralized and does not have a single point of failure. It can create logs for events and transactions on the system. They compared the different ways to do blockchain. They preferred the Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) private blockchain framework as a solution to IoT security and privacy issues. These private or permissioned blockchains provide more security.
Continuous security in IoT:
The security authors have built a program for IoT devices. It stores information about user devices on a framework made out of blocks. These stored interactions are considered as transactions that identify the activities of the user device in the system. Due to the decentralized nature of blockchain, no failure will be accepted in the IoT system. By IoT zone identification, IoT token generation for the validation of zones, security can be achieved.
IoT Platform using a smart contract :
The system implemented by the authors has the communication capability with IoT devices by blocks. A smart contract is a computer program that can be used on the blockchain. It has rules for how the transaction will work, and it is verified by the machine. Once this happens, it generates a block.
Logs for the event of the device are generated by the minor for transmission to every node. A display is made with raspberry pi’s, boards and a personal computer. One device is used for giving sensor information to the other one. It uses events blocks that are generated by the smart contract.
Blockchain-based security for Smart homes:
For the security of smart homes, blockchain architecture has been proposed. It is a technology that is in lots of different things like cameras, bulbs and thermostats. There are three tiers in architecture, and for the sake of communication, we use blockchain transactions.
A device is used for managing, storing and mining the private blockchain in the local network. If you take away a device from the network or add a new one, this will change the ledger. The ledger includes information about who has the access to what. For the communication of IoT devices, the Diffie-Hellman encryption keys are used. And minor is used to maintain the list of public key information for access to local network data from outside.
Blockchain and its integration with IoT:
Authors have discussed various approaches of blockchain for integrating with IoT. In the IoT-blockchain approach, details of all of the interactions can be traced as all interactions go through blockchain. But storing all of the interactions in the blockchain is the main challenge due to the increase in bandwidth.
The hybrid approach is when both blockchain and IoT devices are used. The data in the interaction should be stored in the blockchain. This will help protect your information in devices that are connected to it. As it is difficult to select which of the interactions are stored in the blockchain and which should not. To overcome this, they have suggested the use of fog computing or cloud computing to take advantage of both blockchain and IoT technologies.
Blockchain-based authentication and security in IoT:
In this system, each raspberry pi is a node. There are a lot of people in the network. They all help to run the blockchain. Every transaction in the blockchain is stored, and every transaction is like an event. For example, you can register your device. You can also make sure that it’s you who’s doing the transaction. The process checks if the transactions are okay and there is no bad information.
After receiving a request from devices, the smart contracts perform the operations. As the IoT devices are identified by keys so for the key’s generation cryptographical secure pseudo-random number generator is used. In the blockchain, data is secured by a technique called hashing.
The files are signed with a string of letters and numbers that then gets stored on the distributed ledger. The permission chain is based on Peer authentication for preventing the nodes from intruding.
Towards decentralized IoT security enhancement via blockchain:
Authors have proposed a security management model for IoT devices based on the blockchain. Security management is an important aspect of IoT. There are three layers to it, too. The first layer is perception, which includes terminals and sensing devices. The second layer is the network layer, and the third layer is the application layer. The authors of this article say that their security model provides the protection of devices, authenticity, protection of privacy, and controlled access. They use a key algorithm to identify devices when connecting them to the blockchain database.
Blockchain-based solution for IoT security and privacy:
The blockchain framework with IoT consists of four layers, i.e., physical layer, communication layer, database layer, interface layer. In the decentralized system, the smart contract and Ethereum are used. Minor is used for the validation of transactions in the network.
When a new node tries to access the Internet of Things system, it creates a transaction. This transaction stores the public key and permission access for that node in its blockchain. Privacy is a good thing. To protect people’s privacy, we use private blockchains. These can be made even better with cryptography that hides the identity of the sender.